La tela del ragno: l’impotenza appresa

L’impotenza appresa è una ragnatela nella quale i nostri ragazzi con bisogni educativi speciali, più di tutti gli altri, rischiano di cadere e di restarne invischiati.

impotenza appresa

Cos’è l’impotenza appresa? E’ la convinzione di non possedere le abilità, le caratteristiche, l’intelligenza necessaria per riuscire in una situazione e qualunque cosa si voglia tentare sarà perfettamente inutile.

E’ appresa perché questo senso di incapacità si fonda sulle esperienze fallimentari vissute come riflesso della mancanza di abilità.

Bisogna riprendere il concetto di stile attributivo cioè,  il nostro modo di interpretare le cause degli eventi, delle azioni e dei fatti che succedono a noi o agli altri.

Se gli insuccessi che viviamo li vediamo come risultato di un mancato impegno da parte nostra o da un aiuto che ci aspettavamo e non è arrivato, creiamo i presupposti per un’eventuale riuscita futura (con più impegno o se arriva l’aiuto sperato).

Se gli stessi insuccessi invece li vediamo come risultato di una mancanza di abilità, capacità o intelligenza, va da sé che in un altra situazione simile si ripeterà nuovamente un insuccesso. In questo secondo caso il rischio di sviluppare un’impotenza appresa diventa molto alto.

La convinzione di essere una schiappa in una determinata materia, di non essere abbastanza intelligente per prendere dei bei voti, di essere solo bravo a combinare guai, si sedimenta sempre più in profondità con due risultati:

  1. non si proverà nessuna strategia perché sono inutili (se uno è una schiappa è una schiappa) e ogni proposta di aiuto verrà rifiutata (tanto è inutile: non sono abbastanza intelligente)
  2. questa certezza si consoliderà sempre più fino a portare anche ad una vera e propria depressione.

Le conseguenze

L’impotenza appresa comporta diversi problemi sia sul piano cognitivo che su quello emotivo e motivazionale.

  • cognitivo: il bambino avrà sempre la sensazione di non poter controllare le situazioni e che la sua intelligenza sia limitata e non ci sia possibilità di cambiamento
  • emotivo: paura e ansia di fronte alle situazioni che non si vogliono affrontare e apatia di fronte all’insuccesso considerato inevitabile
  • motivazionale: abbassamento della fiducia in sé stessi e dell’autostima.

Una situazione del genere, soprattutto se dura nel tempo, porta anche alla vera depressione in cui si pensa di non avere abilità e gli eventuali successi sono il risultato di una congiuntura astrale positiva.

Se ti rendi conto che il tuo bimbo sta cadendo in una ragnatela di questo tipo, ti conviene parlarne con l’insegnante per aiutare a modificare queste credenze sbagliate. Tu, nel frattempo, se hai qualche dubbio, scarica QUI il test di attribuzione!

Io rifletto anche su me stessa: anch’io vivo con delle impotenze apprese in alcuni campi e mi rendo conto che sradicarle non è per nulla facile. A maggior ragione faccio attenzione ai comportamenti dei miei ragazzi!

E tu? Hai mai riflettuto su questi aspetti? Condividi i tuoi pensieri con noi, con le altre mamme! Puoi scrivere un commento qui sotto o sulla mia pagina fb!

 

 

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