Persona che vedi, intelligenza che trovi

intelligenza lampadina

Howar Gadner è uno psicologo statunitense tuttora in vita. Infatti è nato nel 1943 ed è Professore presso la Harvard University nel Massachusetts.

La sua fama è dovuta ai suoi studi che hanno portato a una ridefinizione dell’intelligenza. Prima del 1983, anno in cui esce il suo libro Frames of the Mind, l’intelligenza era considerata come un’entità unica e misurabile con il Q.I.

Secondo Gadner, questa visione tradizionale dell’intelligenza è un po’ troppo limitata per spiegare il potenziale umano che lui individua prima in 7 e poi in 9 intelligenze diverse indipendenti tra loro e situate in parti diverse del cervello.

Lo svilupparsi di ciascuna intelligenza e il raggiungimento di livelli più o meno alti, dipende in parte da fattori genetici, ma anche dalle occasioni di apprendimento che si hanno nel proprio contesto culturale.

Non basta, quindi, individuare le inclinazioni personali, ma è necessario allenarle per svilupparle.

Le 7 intelligenze

Quali sono queste intelligenze? Vediamo le 7 principali:

  1. Intelligenza linguistica corrisponde all’abilità di utilizzare un vocabolario vario ed efficace nonché di modificare il registro linguistico a seconda delle necessità. Per svilupparla in tuo figlio, invitalo a raccontarti delle storie
  2. Intelligenza logico-matematica che riguarda il ragionamento logico- deduttivo e la schematizzazione. Per stimolarla bisogna chiedere al ragazzo di fare e verificare ipotesi
  3. Intelligenza musicale. È la capacità di riconoscere e distinguere l’altezza dei suoni e le costruzioni armoniche. Naturalmente la possiedono prevalentemente i compositori, i musicisti e i cantanti. Nei bambini la si può sviluppare facendogli creare melodie ed esplorando i suoni.bussola
  4. Intelligenza spaziale. E’ l’intelligenza che ci permette di percepire forme e oggetti nello spazio. Chi ce l’ha particolarmente sviluppata ha buona memoria per i dettagli, per le caratteristiche delle persone e sa orientarsi molto bene anche in luoghi intricati. Per svilupparla nei nostri ragazzi ci sono le costruzioni con i cubetti per i più piccoli e l’orienteering per i più grandicelli.
  5. Intelligenza corporea-cinestetica. Tipica dei ballerini, dei coreografi ma anche degli artigiani perché permette di coordinare bene i movimenti. Per svilupparla nei bambini è importante farli ballare o inventare coreografie.
  6. Intelligenza Interpersonale. Questa è la capacità di comprendere gli altri, le loro esigenze, paure e desideri nascosti. Tipica dei leader e degli imprenditori. Se tuo figlio ha una propensione per la leadership o la capacità di appianare situazioni, molto probabilmente ce l’ha particolarmente sviluppata.
  7. Intelligenza intrapersonale. Significa capire sé stessi, le proprie caratteristiche ed utilizzarle ottenere risultati migliori nella vita personale, ma anche di sapersi immedesimare in ruoli e sentimenti diversi come fanno gli attori. Sviluppare quest’ultima intelligenza è particolarmente importante per i nostri ragazzi perché permette una buona conoscenza di sé. Significa essere consapevoli, individuare e gestire i propri punti di forza di debolezza. Per potenziarla puoi incoraggiare tuo figlio a tenere un diario.

Come detto all’inizio queste intelligenze hanno una parte di origine genetica, ma non sono immobili: possono essere sviluppate mediante l’esercizio e l’aiuto di chi circonda i ragazzi: noi mamme che siamo le prime educatrici e poi gli insegnanti.

Nei miei ragazzi riconosco soprattutto le intelligenze verbali e interpersonali (nel grande) musicale e corporeo-cinestesica nel piccolo.

E tu? quali intelligenze riconosci in tuo figlio: fammelo sapere qui sotto o sulla pagina facebook di Strategie BES

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